May 27, 2022

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A fisher-hunter-gatherer camp on the shores of the Sea of Galilee from around 23,000 years ago that was previously submerged has been carefully examined by archaeologists from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HUJI) who reached new conclusions that are different from what was previously believed. 


Through a close analysis of the abundance, variety and through use of animal remains at the Ohalo II site, The team concluded that th survivors of the latest Ice Age thrived whereas most of their contemporaries, in other parts of the world, nearly starved due to the Earth’s extremely cold temperatures. 


Their findings have just been published as 53 pages of text in the [US] Public Library of Science One (PLoS One) under the title “Abundance or stress? Faunal exploitation patterns and subsistence strategies: The case study of Brush Hut 1 at Ohalo II, a submerged 23,000-year-old camp in the Sea of Galilee, Israel.” 


Occupied at the end of the last Ice Age (“Last Glacial Maximum”), between 23,500 and 22,500 years ago, Ohalo II is known for the excellent preservation of its brush huts and botanical remains. The study, led by HU doctoral student Tikvah Steiner under the supervision of HU Prof. Rivka Rabinovich and University of Haifa archaeologist Prof. Dani Nadel who excavated the site, examined the diet and extensive use of animal parts to determine the welfare and lifestyle of these ancient inhabitants. Colleagues from Ben-Gurion University and in Spain also participated. 


During the Last Glacial Maximum, ice sheets covered much of North America, Northern Europe and Asia, profoundly affecting the Earth‘s climate by causing drought, desertification and a large drop in sea levels. Ohalo II was discovered in 1989 following drought conditions that lowered the water level of the Sea of Galilee (Kinneret) by several meters. Excavations were carried out between 1989 and 1991 and again between 1998 and 2001.  


The site covers 2,000 meters and is located near the southern tip of the modern Sea of Galilee, about nine kilometers south of Tiberias. The site contains the remains of six oval-shaped brush huts, open-air hearths, the grave of an adult male and various installations and refuse heaps. Abundant organic and inorganic materials provide a wealth of information about the lifestyle of fisher-hunter-gatherers during that period.


From a close analysis of 22,000 animal bones found at the site –

including gazelles, deer, hares and foxes – as well previous documentation regarding the number of charred plant remains, flint tools, cereal grains found there which signify a robust diet and lifestyle, the team concluded that Ohalo II presents a different picture of subsistence than most other early Epipaleolithic sites. 


Climatic shifts during the Last Glacial Maximum had minimal effects on the Upper Jordan Valley, specifically near Ohalo II, enabling those people to use a broad ecological niche comprised of varied edible plants, mammals, reptiles, birds, and fish. “Despite their ability to hunt large animals, these inhabitants also hunted a wide range of prey and had tools and time enough to fully exploit animal carcasses down to the marrow,” shared Steiner.  Likewise, “tortoises were seemingly selected for a specific body-size, which may suggest that their shells – for use as bowls and not their meat –were the main target.  Hare and fox were possibly hunted for their pelts,” she added.


The current study focused on reptile, bird and mammal remains found in one of the huts during its three consecutive occupations.  As part of the study, identification and quantification was carried out of the different animal species, bone sizes were measured, and bone surfaces were subjected to spectroscopic examination to identify signs of cutting and wear. In addition, Dr. Rebecca Biton, a HUJI post-doctoral and an expert in herpetology (the study of amphibians), discovered that the turtles were all of a uniform size, which might indicate a conscious selection by the hunters for a specific size of turtle shell.


Steiner and her colleagues believe that the findings from the site don’t indicate a decline in the availability of food during this period but rather a rich diversity of food sources.  In this way, Ohalo II is a wonderful example of a true broad-spectrum economy during the latest Ice Age, at the very beginning of the Epipaleolithic period.